Glossary

IRI:
http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#
Date:
2016-02-01
Current Version:
0.0.1
Authors:
Ruth Petrie
Publisher:
STFC
Other visualisations:
Ontology source json, rdf, ttl
SPARQL endpoint, dataset:vocab, graph:glossary

Abstract

This glossary represents the concepts used by the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Cross reference for Classes and Properties
  3. Acknowledgements

1. Introduction

The Fifth Assessment IPPC Working Group reports include well defined glossaries, here a subset of useful terms from the glossaries have been incorporated for use in the CLIPC Climate Information Portal.

2. Cross Reference for Classes and Properties back to ToC

This section provides details for each class and property defined by the Ontology.

2.2. Concept Schemes

Glossaryback to ToC or Concept Schemes ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#glossary

This glossary represents the concepts defined in the IPCC Data Distribution Centre (DDC) Glossary. The DDC glossary was adapted at the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) for use in the CLIPC Climate Information Portal, December 2015.
version
0.0.1
creator
Ruth Petrie
contributor
Charlotte Pascoe
type
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
has top concepts
IPCC Glossary
see also
http://www.ipcc-data.org/guidelines/pages/glossary/index.html
date
2016-02-01

2.3. Concepts

A1, A1F1, A1T, A1B and A2back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#a1

See SRES scenarios

AMIPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#amip

Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AR4back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ar4

Fourth IPCC Assessment Report

AR5back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ar5

Fifth IPCC Assessment Report

ASCIIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ascii

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is a character encoding scheme

Adaptationback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#adaptation

The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.

Adaptation capacityback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#adaptationCapacity

The ability of systems, institutions, humans, and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences.

Aerosolback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#aerosols

A suspension of airborne solid or liquid particles, with a typical size between a few nanometres and 10 micrometres that reside in the atmosphere for at least several hours. For convenience the term aerosol, which includes both the particles and the suspendig gas, is often used in its plural form to mean aerosol particles. Aerosols may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Aerosols may influence climate in several ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds.

Albedoback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#albedo

The fraction of solar radiation reflected by a surface or object, often expressed as a percentage. Snow-covered surfaces have a high albedo, the albedo of soils ranges from high to low, and vegetation-covered surfaces and oceans have a low albedo. The Earth's planetary albedo varies mainly through varying cloudiness, snow, ice, leaf area and land cover changes.

Anthropogenicback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#anthropogenic

Resulting from or produced by human activities.

Atmosphereback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#atmosphere

The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. The dry atmosphere consists almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1% volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9% volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93% volume mixing ratio), helium and addiatively active greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (0.035% volume mixing ratio) and ozone. In addition, the atmosphere contains the greenhouse gas water vapour, whose amounts are highly variable but typically around 1% volume mixing ratio. the atmoshere also contains clouds and aerosols.

B1 and B2back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#b1

See SRES scenarios

BADCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#badc

British Atmospheric Data Centre

BMBFback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#bmbf

Bundesminesterium fur Bildung und Forschung / Federal Ministry of Education and Research

Baseline/Referenceback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#baseline

The baseline (or reference) is the state against which change is measured. A baseline period is the period relative to which anomalies are computed. The baseline concentration of a trace gas is that measured at a location not influenced by local anthropogenic emissions. In the context of transformation pathways, the term 'baseline scenarios' refers to scenarios that are based on the assumption that no mitigation policies or measures will be implemented beyond those that are already in force and/or are legislated or planned to be adopted. Baseline scenarios are not intended to be predictions of the future, but rather counterfactual constructions that can serve to highlight the level of emissions that would occur without further policy effort. Typically, baseline scenarios are then compared to mitigation scenarios that are constructed to meet different goals for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, atmosphereic concentrations, or temperature change. The term 'baseline scenario; is used interchangeably with 'reference scenario' and 'no policy scenario'. In much of the literature the term is also synonymous with the term 'business-as-usual (BAU) scenario', although the term 'BAU' has fallen out of favour because the idea of business-as-usual in century-long socioeconomic projections is hard to fathom.

Biosphereback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#biosphere

The part of the Earth system comprising all ecosystems and living organisms, in the atmosphere, on land (terrestrial biosphere) or in the oceans (marine biosphere), including derived dead organic matter, such as litter, soil organic matter and oceanic detritus.

Black carbon (BC)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#bc

Operationally defined aerosol species based on measurement of light absorption and chemical reactivity and/or thermal stability. It is sometimes referred to as soot. BC is mostly formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass but it also occurs naturally. It stays in the atmosphere only for days or weeks. It is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) and has a warming effect by absorbing heat into the atmosphere and reducing the albedo when deposited on ice or snow.

CGEback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cge

Consultative Group of Experts

CIESINback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ciesin

Centre for International Earth Science Information Network

CISLback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cisl

Computational Information Systems Laboratory

CMIPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cmip

Coupled Model Intercomparison Project

CMIP5back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cmip5

Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project

CORDEXback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cordex

Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment

CRUback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#cru

Climatic Research Unit

CSVback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#csv

Comma Separated Values. CSV files store tabular data in plain-text form.

Capacity Buildingback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#capacityBuilding

The practice of enhancing the strengths and attributes of, and resources available to, an individual, community, society, or organisation to respond to change.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#co2

CO2 is a naturally occurring gas, also a by-product of burning fossil fuels from fossil carbon deposits, such as oil, gas and coal, of burning biomass and of land use changes and of industrial processes (e.g., cement production). It is the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1.

Climateback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climate

Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the average weather, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period for averaging these variables is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. The relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.

Climate Changeback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateChange

Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. Note that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in its Article 1, defines climate change as: 'a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods'. The UNFCCC thus makes a distinction between climate change attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition, and climate variability attributable to natural causes.

Climate Change Commitmentback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateChangeCommitment

Due to the thermal inertia of the ocean and slow processes in the cryosphere and land surfaces, the climate would continue to change even if the atmospheric composition were held fixed at todays values. Past change in atmospheric composition leads to a committed climate change, which continues for as long as a radiative imbalance persists and until all components of the climate system have adjusted to a new state. The further change in temperature after the composition of the atmosphere is held constant is referred to as the constant composition temperature commitment or simply committed warming or warming commitment. Climate change commitment includes other future changes, for example in the hydrological cycle, in extreme weather events, in extreme climate events, and in sea level change. The constant emission commitment is the committed climate change that would result from keeping anthropogenic emissions constant and the zero emission commitment is the climate change commitment when emissions are set to zero.

Climate Impactback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateImpact

See Impact Assessment

Climate Model (spectrum or hierarchy)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateModel

A numerical representation of the climate system based on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of its components, their interactions and feedback processes, and accounting for all or some of its known properties. The climate system can be represented by models of varying complexity, that is, for any one component or combination of components a spectrum or hierarchy of models can be identified, differing in such aspects as the number of spatial dimensions, the extent to which physical, chemical, or biological processes are explicitly represented, or the level at which empirical parameterisations are involved. Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) provide a comprehensive representation of the climate system that is near or at the most comprehensive end of the spectrum currently available. There is an evolution towards more complex models with interactive chemistry and biology. Climate models are applied, as a research tool, to study and simulate the climate, and for operational purposes, including monthly, seasonal, and interannual climate predictions.

Climate Predictionback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climatePrediction

A climate prediction or climate forecast is the result of an attempt to produce (starting from a particular state of the climate system) an estimate of the actual evolution of the climate in the future, for example, at seasonal, interannual or long-term time scales. Because the future evolution of the climate system may be highly sensitive to initial conditions, such predictions are usually probabilistic in nature.

Climate Projectionback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateProjection

A climate projection is the simulated response of the climate system to a scenario of future emission or concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols, generally derived using climate models. Climate projections are distinguished from climate predictions in order to emphasize that climate projections depend upon the emission/concentration/radiative forcing scenario used, which are based on assumptions concerning, for example, future socioeconomic and technological developments that may or may not be realised.

Climate Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateScenario

A plausible and often simplified representation of the future climate, based on an internally consistent set of climatological relationships that has been constructed for explicit use in investigating the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change, often serving as input to impact models. Climate projections often serve as the raw material for constructing climate scenarios, but climate scenarios usually require additional information such as about the observed current climate.

Climate Systemback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#climateSystem

The climate system is the highly complex system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere, and the interactions between them. The climate system evolves in time under the influence of its own internal dynamics and because of external forcings such as volcanic eruptions, solar variations and anthropogenic forcings such as the changing composition of the atmosphere and land use change.

Control Runback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#controlRun

A model run carried out to provide a baseline for comparison with climate-change experiments. The control run uses constant values for the radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols appropriate to pre-industrial conditions.

DDCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ddc

IPCC Data Distribution Centre, this website!

DECCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#decc

Department for Energy and Climate Change

DKRZback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#dkrz

Deutsches Klimarechensentrum / German Climate Computing Centre

DOIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#doi

Digital Object Identifier. The DOI system provides a technical and social infrastructure for the registration and use of persistent interoperable identifiers for use on digital networks. More about DOI.

DRSback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#drs

Data Reference Syntax. DRS is a commmon naming system used in the CMIP5 archive to identify datasets. More about DRS.

DVDback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#dvd

Digital Video Disk

Databack to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#data

Data on the DDC is provided to facilitate the timely distribution of a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. The climate data availabe on the DDC includes climate observation data, climate simulation data and synthesised climate data that combines both climate observation and climate simulation data.

Earth System Modelback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#esm

Earth System Model, see Climate Model.

Effective Radiative Forcingback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#radiativeForcingWG1

Sometimes internal drivers are still treated as forcings even though they result from the alteration in climate, for example aerosol or greenhouse gas changes in paleoclimates. The traditional radiative forcing is computed with all tropospheric properties held fixed at their unperturbed values, and after allowing for stratospheric temperature, if perturbed, to readjust to radiative-dynamical equilibrium. Radiative forcing is called instantaneous if no change in stratospheric temperature is accounted for. The radiative forcing once rapid adjustments are accounted for is termed the effective radiative forcing. For the purposes of the WG1 AR5 report, radiative forcing is further defined as the change relative to the year 1750 and, unless otherwise noted, refers to a global and annual average value. Radiative forcing is not to be confused with cloud radiative forcing, which describes an unrelated measure of the impact of clouds on the radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere.

Emission Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#emissionScenario

A plausible representation of the future development of emissions of substances that are potentially radiatively active (e.g., greenhouse gases, aerosols), based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about driving forces (such as demographic and socioeconomic development, technological change, energy and land use) and their key relationships. Concentration scenarios, derived from emission scenarios, are used as input to a climate model to compute climate projections. In IPCC (1992) a set of emission scenarios was presented which were used as a basis for the climate projections in IPCC (1996). These emission scenarios are referred to as the IS92 scenarios. In the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000) a new set of emission scenarios, the so-called SRES scenarios, were published, some of which were used, among others, as a basis for the climate projections presented in Chapters 9 to 11 of IPCC (2001) and Chapters 10 and 11 of IPCC (2007). New emission scenarios for climate change, the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), were developed for, but independently of, the fifth IPCC assessment.

Ensembleback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ensemble

A collection of model simulations characterising a climate prediction or projection. Differences in initial conditions and model formulation result in different evolutions of the modelled system and may give information on uncertainty associated with model error and error in initial conditions in the case of climate forecasts and on uncertainty associated with model error and with internally generated climate variability in the case of climate projections.

Equilibrium and Transient Climate Experimentback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#equilibriumAndTransientClimateExperiment

An equilibrium climate experiment is a climate model experiment in which the model is allowed to fully adjust to a change in radiative forcing. Such experiments provide information on the difference between the initial and final states of the model, but not on the time-dependent response. If the forcing is allowed to evolve gradually according to a prescribed emission scenario, the time-dependent response of a climate model may be analysed. Such an experiment is called a transient climate experiment.

Exposureback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#exposure

The presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental services and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places that could be adversely affected. See also Vulnerability.

Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ecp

See Representative Concentration Pathway

Extreme Climate Eventback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#extremeClimate

See Extreme Weather Event

Extreme Weather Eventback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#extremeWeather

An extreme weather event is an event that is rare at a particular place and time of year. Definitions of rare vary, but an extreme weather event would normally be as rare as or rarer than the 10th or 90th percentile of a probability density function estimated from observations. By definition, the characteristics of what is called extreme weather may vary from place to place in an absolute sense. When a pattern of extreme weather persists for some time, such as a season, it may be classed as an extreme climate event, especially if it yields an average or total that is itself extreme (e.g., drought or heavy rainfall over a season).

FAOback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#fao

Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN)

FARback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#far

IPCC First Assessment Report

Fossil Fuelsback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#fossilFuels

Carbon-based fuels from fossil hydrocarbon deposits, including coal, peat, oil, and natural gas.

GDPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#gdp

Gross Domestic Product

GEOTIFFback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#geotiff

Geostationary Earth Orbit Tagged Image File Format. More about GeoTIFF

GHCN-ERSSTback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ghcnersst

Global Historical Climatology Network - Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature. ERSST link, GHCN link.

GISback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#gis

Geographical Information System. GIS is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present geographical data.

GRIBback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#grib

GRIdded Binary. GRIB is a mathematically concise data format commonly used in meteorology to store historical and forecast weather data.

GZIPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#gzip

GNU zip. GZIP is used for file compression and decompression.

GblCMback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#gblcm

Global Climate Model. See Climate Model.

GenCMback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#gencm

General Circulation Model. See Climate Model.

Global Mean Surface Temperatureback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#globalMeanSurfaceTemperature

An estimate of the global mean surface air temperature. However, for changes over time, only anomalies, as departures from a climatology, are used, most commonly based on the area-weighted global average of the sea surface temperature anomaly and land surface air temperature anomaly.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ghg

Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere itself, and by clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, there are a number of entirely human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, dealt with under the Montreal Protocol. Beside CO2, N2O and CH4, the Kyoto Protocol deals with the greenhouse gases sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).

HTMLback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#html

Hyper Text Mark-up Language

HadCRUT3back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#hadcrut3

Hadley Centre/Climatic Research Unit gridded surface temperature data set version 3

IAMback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#iam

Integrated Assessment Model. Integrated assessment is a method of analysis that combines results and models from the physical, biological, economic, and social sciences, and the interactions among these components in a consistent framework to evaluate the status and the consequences of environmental change and the policy responses to it.

IAMCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#iamc

Integrated Assessment Modelling Consortium

IAVback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#iav

Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability.

IGBPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#igbp

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

IHDPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ihdp

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change

IPCCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ipcc

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC Glossaryback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ipccGlos

The IPCC Data Distribution Centre glossary was compiled from glossary entries from the following IPCC Fifth Assessment Reports: Climate Change 2013 The physical science basis (WG I), Climate Change 2014 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (WG II) and Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change (WG III). Useful acronyms have also been included.
type
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Class, http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
has alternative label
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
is top concept in scheme
Glossary
is in scheme
Glossary
is defined by
Glossary
has narrower
M & D, A1, A1F1, A1T, A1B and A2, Adaptation, Adaptation capacity, Aerosol, Albedo, AMIP, Anthropogenic, AR4, AR5, ASCII, Atmosphere, B1 and B2, BADC, Baseline/Reference, Black carbon (BC), Biosphere, BMBF, Capacity Building, CGE, CIESIN, CISL, Climate, Climate Change, Climate Change Commitment, Climate Impact, Climate Model (spectrum or hierarchy), Climate Prediction, Climate Projection, Climate Scenario, Climate System, CMIP, CMIP5, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Control Run, CORDEX, CRU, CSV, Data, DDC, DECC, DKRZ, DOI, DRS, DVD, Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs), Emission Scenario, Ensemble, Equilibrium and Transient Climate Experiment, Earth System Model, Exposure, Extreme Climate Event, Extreme Weather Event, FAO, FAR, Fossil Fuels, GblCM, GDP, GenCM, GEOTIFF, GHCN-ERSST, Greenhouse Gas (GHG), GIS, Global Mean Surface Temperature, GRIB, GZIP, HadCRUT3, HTML, IAM, IAMC, IAV, IGBP, IHDP, IllS92, Illustrative Scenario, Impact Assessment, Impacts (Consequences, Outcomes), Industrial Revolution, IPCC, IPCCS92, IPCC-DDC, JIIC, Kyoto Protocol, Land use and Land use Change, LUCC, Marker Scenario, Measures, Metadata, Mitigation (of climate change), Montreal Protocol, MPI-M, NASA, NCAR, NCAS, NCSP, NERC, OECD, Ozone, Ozone Hole, Ozone Layer, Particulate Matter (PM), PCMDI, PDF, pH, Phenology, Photochemical smog, Policies (for mitigation of or adaptation to climate change), Pre-Industrial, PROVIA, Effective Radiative Forcing, Radiative Forcing, Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), Renewable Energy (RE), Reference Data, Resolution, SAR, Scenario, Scenario Family, Illustrative scenario, Marker Scenario, SEDAC, Sensitivity, Socio-Economic Scenario, SRES, SRES Scenarios, Shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs), Storyline, Stratosphere, Stratospheric Ozone, TAR, Temperature Anomaly, Terrestrial Biosphere, TGICA, Tide Guage, Transient Climate Experiment, Trend, Tropopause, Troposphere, Tropospheric Ozone, TSU, UN, UNEP, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UV, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Vulnerability, WCRP, WDCC, WGCM, WGI, WGII, WGIII, WMO, WWW

IPCC-DDCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ipccddc

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Data Distribution Centre

IPCCS92back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ipccS92

IPCC Scenarios 1992, see SRES scenarios
type
IPCC Glossary, http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
has alternative label
IS92
is in scheme
Glossary
has broader
IPCC Glossary
has broader match
SRES Scenarios
cites as source document
http://www.ipcc-data.org/guidelines/pages/glossary/index.html

IllS92back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#illS92

Illustrative Scenarios 1992, see SRES scenarios
type
IPCC Glossary, http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
has alternative label
IS92
is in scheme
Glossary
has broader
IPCC Glossary
has broader match
SRES Scenarios
cites as source document
http://www.ipcc-data.org/guidelines/pages/glossary/index.html

Illustrative Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#illustrativeScenario

See Scenario (Illustrative)

Illustrative scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#scenarioIllustrative

A scenario that is illustrative for each of the six scenario groups reflected in the Summary for Policymakers of Nakicenovic and Swart (2000). They include four revised marker scenarios for the scenario groups A1B, A2, B1, B2, and two additional scenarios for the A1F1 and A1T groups. All scenario groups are equally sound.

Impact Assessmentback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#impactAssessment

The practice of identifying and evaluating, in monetary and/or non-monetary terms, the effects of climate change on natural and human systems.

Impacts (Consequences, Outcomes)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#impacts

Effects on natural and human systems. In the WGII AR5 report, the term impacts is used primarily to refer to the effects on natural and human systems of extreme weather and climate events and of climate change. Impacts generally refer to effects on lives, livelihoods, health, ecosystems, economies, societies, cultures, services, and infrastructure due to the interaction of climate changes or hazardous climate events occurring within a specific time period and the vulnerability of an exposed society or system. Impacts are also referred to as consequences and outcomes. The impacts of climate change on geophysical systems, including floods, droughts, and sea level rise, are a subset of impacts called physical impacts.

Industrial Revolutionback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#industrialRevolution

A period of rapid industrial growth with far-reaching social and economic consequences, beginning in England during the second half of the 18th century and spreading to Europe and later to other countries including the United States. The invention of the steam engine was an important trigger of this development. The industrial revolution marks the beginning of a strong increase in the use of fossil fuels and emissions of, in particular, fossil carbon dioxide. In the AR4 and AR5, the term pre-industrial and industrial refer, somewhat arbitrarily, to the periods before and after 1750, respectively.

JIICback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#jiic

Joint IAV IAM Committee. See also definitions for IAM and IAV.

Kyoto Protocolback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#kyotoProtocol

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC. It contains legally binding commitments, in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the Protocol (most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and countries with economies in transition) agreed to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005.

LUCCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#lucc

Land Use and Land-Cover Change Programme

Land use and Land use Changeback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#landUse

Land use refers to the total arrangements, activities and inputs undertaken in a certain land cover type (a set of human actions). The term land use is also used in the sense of the social and economic purposes for which land is managed (e.g., grazing, timber extraction and conservation). Land use change refers to a change in the use or management of land by humans, which may lead to a change in land cover. Land cover and land use change may have an impact on the surface albedo, evapotranspiration, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, or other properties of the climate system and may thus give rise to radiative forcing and/or other impacts on climate, locally or globally. See also the IPCC Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (IPCC, 2000).

M & Dback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#MnD

Model and Data Group

MPI-Mback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#mpim

Max Planck Institute for Meteorology

Marker Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#scenarioMarker

A scenario that was originally posted in draft form on the SRES website to represent a given scenario family. The choice of markers was based on which of the initial quantifications best reflected the storyline, and the features of the specific models. Markers are no more likely than other scenarios, but are considered by the SRES writing team as illustrative of a particular storyline. They are included in revised form in Nakicenovic and Swart (2000). These scenarios received the closest scrutiny of the entire writing team and via the SRES open process. Scenarios were also selected to illustrate the other two scenario groups.

Marker Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#markerScenario

See Scenario (Marker).

Measuresback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#measures

In climate policy, measures are technologies, processes, and practices that contribute to mitigation, for example renewable energy technologies, waste minimization processes and public transport commuting practices.

Metadataback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#metadata

Information about meteorological and climatological data concerning how and when they were measured, their quality, known problems and other characteristics.

Mitigation (of climate change)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#mitigation

A human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The AR5 WGIII report also assesses human interventions to reduce the sources of other substances which may contribute directly or indirectly to limiting climate change, including, for example, the reduction of particulate matter (PM) emissions that can directly alter the radiation balance (e.g., black carbon) or measures that control emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants that can alter the concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3) which has an indirect effect on the climate.

Montreal Protocolback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#montrealProtocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adapted in Montreal in 1987, and subsequently adjusted and amended in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). It controls the consumption and production of chlorine- and bromine-containing chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and many others.

NASAback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#nasa

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCARback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ncar

National Centre for Atmospheric Research

NCASback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ncas

National Centre for Atmospheric Science

NCSPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ncsp

National Communications Support Programme (UN)

NERCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#nerc

National Environment Research Council

OECDback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#oecd

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Ozoneback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ozone

The triatomic form of oxygen (O3), a gaseous atmospheric constituent. In the troposphere, it is created both naturally and by photochemical reactions involving gases resulting from human activities (smog). Tropospheric ozone acts as a greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere, ozone is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen (O2). Stratospheric ozone plays a dominant role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Its concentration is highest in the ozone layer.

Ozone Holeback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ozoneHole

See Ozone Layer

Ozone Layerback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ozoneLayer

The stratosphere contains a layer in which the concentration of ozone is greatest, the so-called ozone layer. The layer extends from about 12 to 40 km above the Earth's surface. The ozone concentration reaches a maximum between about 20 and 25 km. This layer has been depleted by human emissions of chlorine and bromine compounds. Every year, during the Southern Hemisphere spring, a very strong depletion of the ozone layer takes place over the Antarctic, caused by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine compounds in combination with the specific meteorological conditions of that region. This phenomenon is called the ozone hole.

PCMDIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#pcmdi

Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

PDFback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#pdf

Portable Document Format

PROVIAback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#provia

Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation

Particulate Matter (PM)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#particulateMatter

Very small solid particles emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. PM may consist of a wide variety of substances. Of greatest concern for health are particulates of diameter less than or equal to 10 nanometers, usually designated as PM10. See also Aerosol.

Phenologyback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#phenology

The relationship between biological phenomena that recur periodically (e.g., development stages, migration) and climate and seasonal changes.

Photochemical smogback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#photochemSmog

A mix of oxidizing air pollutants produced by the reaction of sunlight with primary air pollutants, especially hydrocarbons. See also Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

Policies (for mitigation of or adaptation to climate change)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#policies

Policies are a course of action taken and/or mandated by a government, e.g., to enhance mitigation and adaptation. Examples of policies amied at mitigation are support mechanisms for renewable energy supplies, carbon or energy taxes, and fuel efficiency standards for automobiles. See also Measures.

Pre-Industrialback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#preIndustrial

Industrial Revolution

Radiative Forcingback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#radiativeForcingWG3

Radiative forcing is the change in the net, downward minus upward, radiative flux (expressed in Watts per square metre; W m-2) at the tropopause or top of atmosphere due to a change in an external driver of climate change, such as, for example, a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) or the output of the Sun.

Reference Databack to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#referenceData

See Baseline

Renewable Energy (RE)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#re

Any form of energy from solar, geophysical, or biological sources that is replenished by natural processes at a rate that equals or exceeds its rate of use.

Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#rcp

Scenarios that include time series of emissons and concentrations of the full suite of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols and chemically active gases, as well as land use/land cover (Moss et al., 2008). The word representative signifies that each RCP provides only one of many possible scenarios that would lead to the specific radiative forcing characteristics. The term pathway emphasises that not only the long-term concentration levels are of interest, but also the trajectory taken over time to reach that outcome (Moss et al., 2010). RCPs usually refer to the portion of the concentration pathway extending up to 2100, for which Integrated Assessment Models produced corresponding emission scenarios. Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs) describe extensions of the RCPs from 2100 to 2500 that were calculated using simple rules generated by stakeholder consultations, and do not represent fully consistent scenarios. Four RCPs produced from Integrated Assessment Models were selected from the published literature and are used in the Fifth IPCC Assessment as a basis for the climate predictions and projections presented in WGI AR5 Chapters 11 to 14: RCP2.6: One pathway where radiative forcing peaks at approximately 3 W m-2 before 2100 and then declines (the corresponding ECP assuming constant emissions after 2100); RCP4.5 and RCP6.0: Two intermediate stabilisation pathways in which radiative forcing is stabilised at approximately 4.5 W m-2 and 6.0 W m-2 after 2100 (the corresponding ECPs assuming constant concentrations after 2150); RCP8.5: One high pathway for which radiative forcing reaches greater than 8.5 W m-2 by 2100 and continues to rise for some amount of time (the corresponding ECP assuming constant emissions after 2100 and constant concentrations after 2250).

Resolutionback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#resolution

In climate models, this term refers to the physical distance (meters or degrees) between each point on the grid used to compute the equations. Temporal resolution refers to the time step or the time elapsed between each model computation of the equations.

SARback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#sar

IPCC Second Assessment Report

SEDACback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#sedac

Socio-Economic Data Applications Center

SRESback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#sres

Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES)

SRES Scenariosback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#sresScenarios

SRES scenarios are emission scenarios developed by Nakicenovic and Swart (2000) and used, among others, as a basis for some of the climate projections shown in Chapters 9 to 11 of IPCC (2001) and Chapters 10 and 11 of IPCC (2007). The following terms are relevant for a better understanding of the structure and use of the set of SRES scenarios: Scenario Family, Illustrative Scenario, Marker Scenario, Storyline.

Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#scenario

A plausible description of how the future may develop based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about key driving forces (e.g., rate of technological change, prices) and relationships. Note that scenarios are neither predictions nor forecasts, but are useful to provide a view of the implications of developments and actions. See also Climate scenario, Emission scenario, Representative Concentration Pathways and SRES scenarios.

Scenario Familyback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#scenarioFamily

Scenarios that have a similar demographic, societal, economic, and technical change storyline. Four scenario families comprise the SRES scenario set: A1, A2, B1, and B2.

Sensitivityback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#sensitivity

The degree to which a system or species is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate variability or change. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages caused by an increase in the frequency of coastal flooding due to sea-level rise).

Shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ssp

Currently, the idea of shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) is developed as a basis for new emissions and socio-economic scenarios. An SSP is one of a collection of pathways that describe alternative futures of socio-economic development in the absense of climate policy intervention. The combination of SSP-based socio-economic scenarios and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP)-based climate projections should provide a useful integrative frame for climate impact and policy analysis.

Socio-Economic Scenarioback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#socioEconomicScenario

A scenario that describes a possible future in terms of population, gross domestic product (GDP), and other socio-economic factors relevant to understanding the implications of climate change. concerning future conditions in terms of population, Gross Domestic Product and other socio-economic factors relevant to understanding the implications of climate change.

Storylineback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#storyline

A narrative description of a scenario (or family of scenarios), highlighting the main scenario characteristics, relationships between key driving forces and the dynamics of their evolution.

Stratosphereback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#stratosphere

The highly stratified region of the atmosphere above the troposphere extending from about 10 km (ranging from 9 km at high latitudes to 16 km in the tropics on average) to about 50 km altitude.

Stratospheric Ozoneback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#stratosphericOzone

See Ozone

TARback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#tar

IPCC Third Assessment Report

TGICAback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#tgica

Task Group on data and scenario support for Impacts and Climate Analysis (IPCC)

TSUback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#tsu

Technical Support Unit (IPCC)

Temperature Anomalyback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#temperatureAnomaly

See Global Mean Surface Temperature

Terrestrial Biosphereback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#terrestrialBiosphere

See Biosphere

Tide Guageback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#tideGuage

A device at a coastal location or deep-sea location that continuously measures the level of the sea with respect to the adjacent land. Time averaging of the sea level so recorded gives the observed secular changes of the relative sea level.

Transient Climate Experimentback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#transientClimateExperiment

See Equilibrium and Transient Climate Experiments

Trendback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#trend

In the AR4 and AR5 WGI reports, the word trend designates a change, generally monotonic in time, in the value of a variable.

Tropopauseback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#tropopause

The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

Troposphereback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#troposphere

The lowest part of the atmosphere, from the surface to about 10 km in altitude at mid-latitudes (ranging from 9 km at high latitude to 16 km in the tropics on average), where clouds and weather phenomena occur. In the troposphere, temperatures generally decrease with height. See also Stratosphere.

Tropospheric Ozoneback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#troposphericOzone

See Ozone

UNback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#un

United Nations

UNEPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#unep

United Nations Environment Programme

UVback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#uv

Ultraviolet

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changeback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#unfccc

The Convention was adopted on 9 May 1992 in New York and signed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro by more than 150 countries and the European Community. Its ultimate objective is the 'stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. It contains commitments for all Parties. Under the Convention, Parties included in Annex I (all OECD countries and countries with economies in transition) aim to return greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions not controlled by the Montreal Protocol to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The convention entered in force in March 1994. In 1997, the UNFCCC adopted the Kyoto Protocol.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)back to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#voc

Important class of organic chemical air pollutants that are volatile at ambient air conditions. Other terms used to represent VOCs are hydrocarbons (HCs), reactive organic gases (ROGs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). NMVOCs are major contributors - together with nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) - to the formation of photochemical oxidants such as ozone.

Vulnerabilityback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#vulnerability

The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts including sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.

WCRPback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wcrp

World Climate Research Programme

WDCCback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wdcc

World Data Centre for Climate

WGCMback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wgcm

Working Group on Coupled Modelling

WGIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wgi

IPCC Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

WGIIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wgii

IPCC Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

WGIIIback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wgiii

IPCC Working Group III: Mitigation of climate change

WMOback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#wmo

World Meteorological Organisation

WWWback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#www

World Wide Web

pHback to ToC or Concepts ToC

IRI: http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#ph

pH is a dimensionless measure of the acidity of water (or any solution) given by its concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). pH is measured on a logarithmic scale where pH = –log10(H+). Thus, a pH decrease of 1 unit corresponds to a 10-fold increase in the concentration of H+, or acidity.

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://vocab-test.ceda.ac.uk/glossary#
cito
http://purl.org/spar/cito/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
skos
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#